Technologies for water energy use


Types of technologies


Water head plants (WPP) use the kinetic energy of water from a created water fall (dam wall). This is a high extensive hydro technology, which does not make a complete use of all the natural characteristics of water.

Hydro kinetic plants (HHKP) they transform kinetic energy, available in flowing water (rivers) into electric energy with the help of hydraulic turbines and electric generators. Energy potential is dependent on the amount of water and its speed.


With contemporary implosive technologies, the efficiency of hydrokinetic power plants (HPP) can get higher than the WPP ones.

Hydropower using the potential of a river or stream does not depend on the number of dams o created n it, but on the capacity and the displacement on the river. Only moving water can rotate turbines in WPP. Damming and stopping water and then letting it out to the turbines, in superficial derivations, pipes and other devices can be avoided. The kinetic energy in free flowing rivers can be converted via transformers that are mounted in the rivers (for example totally submerged turbines). That has two positive effects, first it is significantly cheaper, and secondly it is environment-friendly.

An essential principal difference between WPP and Hydro Kinetic Power Plants is that the turbines in WPP use the in coming water only once with a powerful energy as a result of an artificially created water surge. The technologies for Hydro Kinetic Power plants use the cycle of low energy water flowing repeatedly without a high surge.

Technology for energy derived from wave power

There are two main approaches for the construction of a power station using wave power. One of them is the construction of coast power stations, utilizing the energy from the surf and the other one is an offshore power station that is totally or half submerged in the sea, most often near the shore. It cannot be said which approach is more efficient, because it is largely dependent on the choice of the particular location on the coast or out at sea.

These approaches are technically different. So far about 20 differing technologies for both have been used, as well as combinations of the varied technologies. The coastal sea power plants often use propeller impeller turbines according to Chapman technology.

Apart from the turbines, hydraulic pumps, most often reflexive receptive ones are also uesd. They are typical for offshore wave power plants.

5.1.2. Can I apply that technology in my company?


Think about the next questions:

Is there a permanently flowing river near your company?


Is the company isolated from the national grid?

Do you need electric energy?

Do you have enough financial resources or an opportunity for a long term credit?


If this is the case then a micro hydro energy system (between 5 kW and 100kW) is a good solution for your electricity demand.

Which technology is better to choose-WPP or Hydro Kinetic Power station?

The exploitation of the hydro kinetic power stations due to the lack of concern for hydro technical devices (dam wall, pipes, valves) does not have high operating costs compared to WPP. So the annual operation costs are comparatively low, therefore the price of production of energy is low. It is not worth investing in smaller WPP power units because a high proportion of resources would have to be spent on compensating for possible environmental damage, caused by



























N.B. WPP are used less than 20 % annually because of the need to keep the water resource. And the exploitation of the hydro kinetic installations without any problems reaches 4- 5 times higher annual loading, which results in significant reduction of the prime price of produced energy.